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檢查和收集 Linux 硬件信息的 7 個命令

來源:漠天 發布時間:2019-07-19 閱讀次數:

在Linux系統中,有許多命令可用于查詢主機的硬件信息。一些命令只針對特定的硬件組件,比如CPU、內存,一些命令可以查詢多個硬件信息。

這篇文章只是簡單的讓每個人了解查詢硬件信息的基本命令使用,包括lscpu、hwinfo、lshw、lspci、lsblk、lsusb等等。

1. lscpu用于查詢CPU信息

[[email protected] ~]# lscpu
Architecture:          x86_64
CPU op-mode(s):        32-bit, 64-bit
Byte Order:            Little Endian
CPU(s):                1
On-line CPU(s) list:   0
Thread(s) per core:    1
Core(s) per socket:    1
CPU socket(s):         1
NUMA node(s):          1
Vendor ID:             GenuineIntel
CPU family:            6
Model:                 45
Stepping:              7
CPU MHz:               2194.842
BogoMIPS:              4389.68
Hypervisor vendor:     Xen
Virtualization type:   full
L1d cache:             32K
L1i cache:             32K
L2 cache:              256K
L3 cache:              15360K
NUMA node0 CPU(s):     0

2. lshw顯示硬件信息表

這個命令應用普遍,它可通過個人需求而列出多種不同的硬件參數:CPU、內存、硬盤、USB控制器、lshw卡片等等,本質上就是從/proc目錄不同文件中中提取對應的硬件信息。

按照下面的步驟去安裝lshw工具,然后就可以使用了。

 wget http://ezix.org/software/files/lshw-B.02.14.tar.gz
 tar -zxvf lshw-B.02.14.tar.gz
 cd lshw-B.02.14
 make && make install

示例:

[[email protected] lshw-B.02.14]# lshw -short
H/W path          Device       Class      Description
=====================================================
                               system     HVM domU
/0                             bus        Motherboard
/0/0                           memory     96KiB BIOS
/0/1                           processor  Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2430 0 @ 2.20GHz
/0/2                           memory     System Memory
/0/2/0                         memory     512MiB DIMM RAM
/0/2/1                         memory     512MiB DIMM RAM
/0/3                           memory     96KiB BIOS
/0/4                           processor  CPU
/0/5                           memory     System Memory
/0/6                           memory     
/0/7                           memory     
/0/100                         bridge     440FX - 82441FX PMC [Natoma]
/0/100/1                       bridge     82371SB PIIX3 ISA [Natoma/Triton II]
/0/100/1.1        scsi1        storage    82371SB PIIX3 IDE [Natoma/Triton II]
/0/100/1.1/0.0.0  /dev/cdrom1  disk       SCSI CD-ROM
/0/100/1.2                     bus        82371SB PIIX3 USB [Natoma/Triton II]
/0/100/1.2/1      usb1         bus        UHCI Host Controller
/0/100/1.2/1/2                 input      QEMU USB Tablet
/0/100/1.3                     bridge     82371AB/EB/MB PIIX4 ACPI
/0/100/2                       display    GD 5446
/0/100/3                       generic    Xen Platform Device
/1                eth0         network    Ethernet interface
/2                eth1         network    Ethernet interface
[[email protected] lshw-B.02.14]#

3. hwinfo-硬件信息

hwinfo類似于lshw,也能查詢硬件信息,且應用廣泛。它也能輸出多個硬件部分的詳細或者簡要信息,但是不同的是有時hwinfo比lshw的信息更詳細。

默認情況下,Linux系統沒有安裝hwinfo工具,所以你需要按照以下步驟自己安裝:

CentOS 6

#rpm -Uvh http://mirror.symnds.com/distributions/gf/el/6/gf/x86_64/gf-release-6-6.gf.el6.noarch.rpm
#yum list hwinfo
#yum install hwinfo

CentOS 5

#rpm -Uvh http://mirror.symnds.com/distributions/gf/el/5/gf/x86_64/gf-release-5-6.gf.el5.noarch.rpm
#yum list hwinfo
#yum install hwinfo
[[email protected] tmp]# rpm -Uvh http://mirror.symnds.com/distributions/gf/el/6/gf/x86_64/gf-release-6-6.gf.el6.noarch.rpm
Retrieving http://mirror.symnds.com/distributions/gf/el/6/gf/x86_64/gf-release-6-6.gf.el6.noarch.rpm
warning: /var/tmp/rpm-tmp.m2mMAO: Header V4 RSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 13a4d2a9: NOKEY
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:gf-release             ########################################### [100%]
[[email protected] tmp]# yum list hwinfo
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * extras: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * updates: mirrors.aliyun.com
gf                                                                                                    

 00:00     
gf/primary_db                                                                                     

 00:00     
Available Packages
hwinfo.x86_64
[[email protected] tmp]# yum list hwinfo
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * extras: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * updates: mirrors.aliyun.com
gf                                                                                                   

 00:00     
gf/primary_db                                                                                          

 00:00     
Available Packages
hwinfo.x86_64                                                20.2-1.gf.el6
[[email protected] tmp]# yum install hwinfo
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * extras: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * updates: mirrors.aliyun.com
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package hwinfo.x86_64 0:20.2-1.gf.el6 will be installed
.....

示例:

[[email protected] tmp]# hwinfo -short
oops: don't know what to do with "short"
[[email protected] tmp]# hwinfo --short
cpu:                                                            
                       Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2430 0 @ 2.20GHz, 2194 MHz
keyboard:
  /dev/input/event3    AT Translated Set 2 keyboard
  /dev/ttyS0           serial console
mouse:
  /dev/input/mice      Adomax QEMU USB Tablet
  /dev/input/mice      Macintosh mouse button emulation
  /dev/input/mice      ImExPS/2 Generic Explorer Mouse
graphics card:
                       Cirrus Logic GD 5446
storage:
                       Intel 82371SB PIIX3 IDE [Natoma/Triton II]
                       Xen Virtual Storage 0
                       Xen Virtual Storage 1
                       Xen Virtual Storage 2
network:
  eth0                 Xen Virtual Ethernet Card 0
  eth1                 Xen Virtual Ethernet Card 1
network interface:
  lo                   Loopback network interface
  eth0                 Ethernet network interface
  eth1                 Ethernet network interface
disk:
  /dev/xvda            Disk
  /dev/xvdb            Disk
partition:
  /dev/xvda1           Partition
  /dev/xvdb1           Partition
cdrom:
  /dev/sr0             QEMU DVD-ROM
usb controller:
                       Qumranet Qemu virtual machine
bios:
                       BIOS
bridge:
                       Qumranet Qemu virtual machine
                       Qumranet Qemu virtual machine
                       Qumranet Qemu virtual machine
hub:
                       Linux 2.6.32-279.el6.x86_64 uhci_hcd UHCI Host Controller
memory:
                       Main Memory
unknown:
                       FPU
                       DMA controller
                       PIC
                       Timer
                       Keyboard controller
                       XenSource Xen Platform Device
[[email protected] tmp]#

4. lspci

lsppci命令可列出PCI總線的信息以及連接到PCI總線上的設備信息,比如VGA適配器、SATA控制器、其他模塊等等。lspci工具是pciutils包的一部分,所以在安裝lspci之前,你需要安裝pciutils包。

安裝pciutils包使用下面的命令:

#yum install pciutils
[[email protected] tmp]# yum install pciutils
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * extras: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * updates: mirrors.aliyun.com
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package pciutils.x86_64 0:3.1.10-2.el6 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: pciutils-libs = 3.1.10-2.el6 for package: pciutils-3.1.10-2.el6.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package pciutils-libs.x86_64 0:3.1.4-11.el6 will be updated
---> Package pciutils-libs.x86_64 0:3.1.10-2.el6 will be an update
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

Installing:
 pciutils                         x86_64                    3.1.10-2.el6               

      85 k
Updating for dependencies:
 pciutils-libs                    x86_64                    3.1.10-2.el6                 

      34 k

.....  

Dependency Updated:
  pciutils-libs.x86_64 0:3.1.10-2.el6                                                                            

Complete!

示例:

[[email protected] tmp]# lspci 
00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation 440FX - 82441FX PMC [Natoma] (rev 02)
00:01.0 ISA bridge: Intel Corporation 82371SB PIIX3 ISA [Natoma/Triton II]
00:01.1 IDE interface: Intel Corporation 82371SB PIIX3 IDE [Natoma/Triton II]
00:01.2 USB controller: Intel Corporation 82371SB PIIX3 USB [Natoma/Triton II] (rev 01)
00:01.3 Bridge: Intel Corporation 82371AB/EB/MB PIIX4 ACPI (rev 01)
00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Cirrus Logic GD 5446
00:03.0 Unassigned class [ff80]: XenSource, Inc. Xen Platform Device (rev 01)
[[email protected] tmp]#

5. lsusb-列出USB總線信息

這個命令可列出USB控制器的設備信息。

lsusb工具是usbutils包的一部分,所以你需要按照如下命令安裝:

#yum install usbutils
[[email protected] tmp]# yum install usbutils
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * extras: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * updates: mirrors.aliyun.com
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package usbutils.x86_64 0:003-4.el6 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: libusb-1.0.so.0()(64bit) for package: usbutils-003-4.el6.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package libusb1.x86_64 0:1.0.9-0.6.rc1.el6 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

============================================

============
 Package                     Arch                      Version                              

      Size
=======================================================
============
Installing:
 usbutils                    x86_64                    003-4.el6                                  

      71 k
Installing for dependencies:
 libusb1                     x86_64                    1.0.9-0.6.rc1.el6                      

      80 k

Transaction Summary
================================================================

============
Install       2 Package(s)

Total download size: 152 k
Installed size: 377 k
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
(1/2): libusb1-1.0.9-0.6.rc1.el6.x86_64.rpm                                                     

 00:00     
(2/2): usbutils-003-4.el6.x86_64.rpm                                               

 00:00     
--------------------------------------------------------

------------
Total                                                                                     

 00:00     
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
  Installing : libusb1-1.0.9-0.6.rc1.el6.x86_64                                                                  

       1/2 
  Installing : usbutils-003-4.el6.x86_64                                                                         

       2/2 
  Verifying  : usbutils-003-4.el6.x86_64                                                                         

       1/2 
  Verifying  : libusb1-1.0.9-0.6.rc1.el6.x86_64                                                                  

       2/2 

Installed:
  usbutils.x86_64 0:003-4.el6                                                                                    

Dependency Installed:
  libusb1.x86_64 0:1.0.9-0.6.rc1.el6                                                                             

Complete!

示例:

[[email protected] tmp]# lsusb
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 0627:0001 Adomax Technology Co., Ltd 
[[email protected] tmp]#

6. lsblk-列出塊設備的信息

[[email protected] tmp]# lsblk
NAME    MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
xvda    202:0    0    20G  0 disk 
└─xvda1 202:1    0    20G  0 part /
xvdb    202:16   0    10G  0 disk 
└─xvdb1 202:17   0    10G  0 part /alidata
sr0      11:0    1   362K  0 rom

7. lsscsi-列出SCSI的設備信息

列出SCSI/SDAT設備的信息,比如硬盤驅動器、光盤驅動器。

[[email protected] tmp]# lsscsi
[1:0:0:0]    cd/dvd  QEMU     QEMU DVD-ROM     0.10  /dev/sr0 
[[email protected] tmp]#

完畢!Enjoy this!

 

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